Folk religion consists of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of an organized religion, but outside of official doctrine and practices. Don Yoder has defined "folk religion" as "the totality of all those views and practices of religion that exist among the people apart from and alongside the strictly theological and liturgical forms of the official religion."
The term "folk religion" is generally held to encompass two related but separate subjects. The first is the religious dimension of folk culture, or the folk-cultural dimensions of religion. The second refers to the study of syncretisms between two cultures with different stages of formal expression, such as the melange of African folk beliefs and Roman Catholicism that led to the development of Vodun and Santeria, and similar mixtures of formal religions with folk cultures.
There is sometimes tension between the practice of folk religion and the formally taught doctrines and teachings of a faith. In other cases, practices that originated in folk religion are adopted as part of the official religion.
The term is also used, especially by the clergy of the faiths involved, to describe the desire of people who otherwise infrequently attend religious worship, do not belong to a church or similar religious society, and who have not made a formal profession of faith in a particular creed, to have religious weddings or funerals, or (among Christians) to have their children baptised.
Examples of folk religionEdit
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Appearances of religious figuresEdit
- Main article: Perceptions of religious imagery in natural phenomena
Power or protective objectsEdit
- Main article: Amulet
- belief in traditional systems of magic (hoodoo, voodoo, pow-wow, Benedicaria, Palo Monte, Anito, Santería and Catimbó)
- rituals to honor a particular (aspect of) Gods or Goddesses, to bring something into existence, to find love, etc.
- rituals to ward off the Evil Eye, curses, demons, witchcraft, etc.
- Main article: Faith healing
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- Appalachian Granny Magic
- Civil religion
- Cunning Folk
- Ethnoreligious group
- Folk medicine
- Magic and religion
- Popular piety
- Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
- Sex magic
- Thunderstone (folklore)
- Veneration of the dead
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Bowman, Marion (2004). "Chapter 1: Phenomenology, Fieldwork, and Folk Religion". In Sutcliffe, Steven. Religion: empirical studies. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0754641589. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BU2BSj4dcHMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=%22folk+religion%22&ots=wcBB60YF7N&sig=_T96LsQHB7tMZfJKD8v48L34wMQ.
- ↑ Yoder, Don (Januuary 1974). "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion". Western Folklore 33 (1): 1–15.
- ↑ Don Yoder, "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion", above
- Thomas, Keith (1971). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in popular beliefs in sixteenth and seventeenth century England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. ISBN 0297002201.
- Nepstad, Sharon Erickson (1996). "Popular Religion, Protest, and Revolt: The Emergence of Political Insurgency in the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran Churches of the 1960s–80s". In Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. pp. 105–124. ISBN 0415914051.
- Nash, June (1996). "Religious Rituals of Resistance and Class Consciousness in Bolivian Tin-Mining Communities". In Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. pp. 87–104. ISBN 0415914051.
- Gorshunova . Olga V.(2008). Svjashennye derevja Khodzhi Barora…, ( Sacred Trees of Khodzhi Baror: Phytolatry and the Cult of Female Deity in Central Asia) in Etnoragraficheskoe Obozrenie, n° 1, pp. 71-82. ISSN 0869-5415. (Russian).
- Folk Christianity in the Philippines
- "Myths over Miami": an account of the folk religion of children living in homeless shelters in Miami, circa 1997.